How can we be critical of raunch culture but not the women in it?
- Ie. Avoid ‘slut shaming’
- What about women in production – Levy’s ‘Female Chauvinist Pigs’
Wendy Chapkis (1986) – images of slimness and wellbeing
An approach that ‘conceptualises the interaction between text and audience’ van Zoonen (pg. 88)
Laura Mulvey – Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema 1975
Tendency for the spectator of the male gaze to be an abstract figure or concept but for analysis of female viewing pleasure to be limited to/ drawn from real female audiences
To review music vids with female stars vs ones with female extras
- Comparison of different female stars with each other and with how make stars (and extras) are portrayed?
The concept of ‘male’ and ‘female’ gaze are too ‘essentialist’ van Zoonen pg.104
- Over simplification
- Are these concepts still useful?